Get the answers to frequently asked questions about water fluoridation. All answers are backed by peer-reviewed science and research.
“Estimation of the amount of fluoride ingested from all environmental and dietary sources is important so that rational and scientifically sound decisions can be made when guidelines for the use of fluorides are reviewed periodically and modified.”
— Journal of Dental Research, 1992
Thankfully, most fresh water supplies contain very low levels of fluoride. The average level of fluoride in unpolluted fresh water is less than 0.1 ppm, which is about 10 times less than the levels added to water in fluoridation programs (0.7 to 1.2 ppm). The frequent claim, therefore, that ‚Äúnature thought of fluoridation first‚Äù does not withstand scrutiny.
It is hard to overstate the importance of this point to the fluoride debate, particularly when considering that fluoride‚Äôs risks come primarily from ingestion.
Excessive fluoride exposure is well known to cause a painful bone disease (skeletal fluorosis), as well as a discoloration of the teeth known as dental fluorosis. Excessive fluoride exposure has also been linked to a range of other chronic ailments including arthritis, bone fragility, dental fluorosis, glucose intolerance, gastrointestinal distress, thyroid disease, and possibly cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer.
While the lowest doses that cause some of these effects are not yet well defined, it is clear that certain subsets of the population are particularly vulnerable to fluoride‚Äôs toxicity. Populations that have heightened susceptibility to fluoride include infants, individuals with kidney disease, individuals with nutrient deficiencies (particularly calcium and iodine), and individuals with medical conditions that cause excessive thirst.
Spring water: Most spring water contains very low levels of fluoride (generally less than 0.1 ppm). To see the fluoride levels in popular brands of water, click here.
Water filtration: Many water filters (e.g., Brita & Pur) use an ‚Äúactivated carbon‚Äù filter that does not remove fluoride. Water filters that do remove fluoride include reverse osmosis, deionizers that use ion-exchange resin, and activated alumina. To learn more, click here.
Water Distillation: Distilling water is an effective way of removing fluoride from water. Whereas a water filter is installed directly into the sink, a distillation unit is a separate device that can be stored on your countertop.